部署 Passenger + Nginx + Capistrano 部署

dccmmtop · 2018年07月20日 · 3750 次阅读

部署 Rails

添加新用户

在服务器添加一个新的用户,用户名为 deploy教程

  • 执行命令adduser
  • 按提示输入密码
  • 设置一些个人信息,可以直接按 enter 键,设为空

  • 添加权限

    在 root 用户下,打开/etc/sudoers文件

    #
    # This file MUST be edited with the 'visudo' command as root.
    #
    # Please consider adding local content in /etc/sudoers.d/ instead of
    # directly modifying this file.
    #
    # See the man page for details on how to write a sudoers file.
    #
    Defaults        env_reset
    Defaults        mail_badpass
    Defaults        secure_path="/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/snap/bin"
    
    # Host alias specification
    
    # User alias specification
    
    # Cmnd alias specification
    
    # User privilege specification
    root    ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL
    deploy  ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL # 添加这一行,使deploy具有使用sudo的权限
    
    # Members of the admin group may gain root privileges
    %admin ALL=(ALL) ALL
    
    # Allow members of group sudo to execute any command
    %sudo   ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL
    
    # See sudoers(5) for more information on "#include" directives:
    
    #includedir /etc/sudoers.d
    

    ruby 安装

  • 安装rbenv 教程来源 sudo deploy回到 deploy 下

    git clone https://github.com/rbenv/rbenv.git ~/.rbenv
    # 用来编译安装 ruby
    git clone https://github.com/rbenv/ruby-build.git ~/.rbenv/plugins/ruby-build
    # 用来管理 gemset, 可选, 因为有 bundler 也没什么必要
    git clone git://github.com/jamis/rbenv-gemset.git  ~/.rbenv/plugins/rbenv-gemset
    # 通过 rbenv update 命令来更新 rbenv 以及所有插件, 推荐
    git clone git://github.com/rkh/rbenv-update.git ~/.rbenv/plugins/rbenv-update
    # 使用 Ruby China 的镜像安装 Ruby, 国内用户推荐
    git clone git://github.com/AndorChen/rbenv-china-mirror.git ~/.rbenv/plugins/rbenv-china-mirror
    

    然后把下面的代码放到 ~/.bashrc 里

    export PATH="$HOME/.rbenv/bin:$PATH"
    eval "$(rbenv init -)"
    

    然后重开一个终端就可以执行 rbenv 了.

  • 安装 ruby

    rbenv install --list  # 列出所有 ruby 版本
    rbenv install 2.5.0     # 安装 2.5.0
    

    安转过程可能出现缺少依赖的错误,可参考这篇文章解决 一般解决办法:

    sudo apt-get install autoconf bison build-essential libssl-dev libyaml-dev libreadline6 libreadline6-dev zlib1g zlib1g-dev
    
  • 验证安装是否成功

    rbenv versions               # 列出安装的版本
    rbenv version                # 列出正在使用的版本
    
  • 设置版本

    rbenv global 2.5.0      # 默认使用 2.5.0
    rbenv shell 2.5.0       # 当前的 shell 使用 2.5.0, 会设置一个 `RBENV_VERSION` 环境变量
    rbenv local jruby-1.7.3      # 当前目录使用 jruby-1.7.3, 会生成一个 `.rbenv-version` 文件
    
  • last

    rbenv rehash                 # 每当切换 ruby 版本和执行 bundle install 之后必须执行这个命令
    rbenv which irb              # 列出 irb 这个命令的完整路径
    rbenv whence irb             # 列出包含 irb 这个命令的版本
    
  • 安装bundle

    gem install bundle
    
  • 安装rails

    gem install rails
    
  • 安装 nodejs

    sudo apt install nodejs
    

数据库

使用 postgresql 数据库教程来源

sudo apt-get install postgresql  
  • 新建数据库用户

    sudo -i -u postgres  //切换到数据库的超级管理员
    psql                 //进入数据库控制台
    create user deploy with password 'xxxx'; //新建一个deploy用户,密码是xxx
    alter role deploy with createdb; //使deploy用户具有创建数据库的权限
    alter role deploy with login;//使deploy用户具有登录数据库的权限
    
  • 注意:

    在后面安装 pg gem 时,可能会出现You need to install postgresql-server-dev-X.Y for building a server-side extension or libpq-dev for building a client-side applic ation错误,依次执行:

    sudo apt-get install python-psycopg2
    sudo apt-get install libpq-dev
    

nginx passenger 安装

这里很详细了

sudo apt-get install -y dirmngr gnupg
sudo apt-key adv --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80 --recv-keys 561F9B9CAC40B2F7
sudo apt-get install -y apt-transport-https ca-certificates
sudo sh -c 'echo deb https://oss-binaries.phusionpassenger.com/apt/passenger xenial main > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/passenger.list'
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install -y nginx-extras passenger
  • passenger 的配置

    nginx 安装以后,打开/etc/nginx/passenger.conf会看到

    passenger_root /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/phusion_passenger/locations.ini;
    passenger_ruby /home/deploy/.rbenv/shims/ruby; //这里需要修改ruby的安装路径
    

    which ruby 可以查看 ruby 的路径

Capistrano 配置原文教程

  • 安装必要的包

    group :development do
    gem 'capistrano'
    gem 'capistrano-bundler'
    gem 'capistrano-rails'
    gem 'capistrano-rbenv'
    # Add this if you're using rvm
    # gem 'capistrano-rvm'
    end
    
  • cap install

  • 我的 capfile 文件

    # Load DSL and set up stages
    require "capistrano/setup"
    
    # Include default deployment tasks
    require "capistrano/deploy"
    
    # Load the SCM plugin appropriate to your project:
    #
    # require "capistrano/scm/hg"
    # install_plugin Capistrano::SCM::Hg
    # or
    # require "capistrano/scm/svn"
    # install_plugin Capistrano::SCM::Svn
    # or
    require "capistrano/scm/git"
    install_plugin Capistrano::SCM::Git
    
    # Include tasks from other gems included in your Gemfile
    #
    # For documentation on these, see for example:
    #
    #   https://github.com/capistrano/rvm
    #   https://github.com/capistrano/rbenv
    #   https://github.com/capistrano/chruby
    #   https://github.com/capistrano/bundler
    #   https://github.com/capistrano/rails
    #   https://github.com/capistrano/passenger
    #
    # require "capistrano/rvm"
    require "capistrano/rbenv"
    # require "capistrano/chruby"
    require "capistrano/bundler"
    require "capistrano/rails/assets"
    require "capistrano/rails/migrations"
    require "capistrano/passenger"
    set :rbenv_type, :user
    set :rbenv_ruby, '2.5.0'
    
    # Load custom tasks from `lib/capistrano/tasks` if you have any defined
    Dir.glob("lib/capistrano/tasks/*.rake").each { |r| import r } 
    
    

    我的 deploy.rb 文件

    # config valid for current version and patch releases of Capistrano
    lock "~> 3.10.2"
    
    set :application, "script_blog"
    set :repo_url, "https://github.com/dccmmtop/script_blog.git"
    # Default branch is :master
    # ask :branch, `git rev-parse --abbrev-ref HEAD`.chomp
    
    # Default deploy_to directory is /var/www/my_app_name
    set :deploy_to, "/home/deploy/scrit_blog"
    
    # Default value for :format is :airbrussh.
    # set :format, :airbrussh
    
    # You can configure the Airbrussh format using :format_options.
    # These are the defaults.
    # set :format_options, command_output: true, log_file: "log/capistrano.log", color: :auto, truncate: :auto
    
    # Default value for :pty is false
    # set :pty, true
    
    # Default value for :linked_files is []
    # 在服务器<project-name>/share/config/ 下,要手动新建这两个文件,
    append :linked_files, "config/database.yml","config/secrets.yml" 
    
    # Default value for linked_dirs is []
    append :linked_dirs, "log", "tmp/pids", "tmp/cache", "tmp/sockets", "public/system"
    
    # Default value for default_env is {}
    # set :default_env, { path: "/opt/ruby/bin:$PATH" }
    
    # Default value for local_user is ENV['USER']
    # set :local_user, -> { `git config user.name`.chomp }
    
    # Default value for keep_releases is 5
    # set :keep_releases, 5
    
    # Uncomment the following to require manually verifying the host key before first deploy.
    # set :ssh_options, verify_host_key: :secure
    
    

    注意append :linked_files, "config/database.yml","config/secrets.yml"

    database.ymlsecrets.yml是手动在,share/config/目录下新建的,一个是连接数据库的相关信息,一个是安全验证相关信息。我的部署目录是scriot_blog/ 就新建 script_blog/share/config/ 目录

    同时新建以上两个文件。

    database.yml

    production:
    adapter: postgresql
    pool: <%= ENV.fetch("RAILS_MAX_THREADS") { 5 } %>
    timeout: 5000
    database: production_blog
    username: 'xxx'
    password: 'xxx'
    
    

    secrets.yml

    production:
    secret_key_base: xxxxxx
    

    其中secret_key_base的值是在本地项目下 执行rake secret 命令生成的。

  • deploy/production.rb

    # server-based syntax
    # ======================
    # Defines a single server with a list of roles and multiple properties.
    # You can define all roles on a single server, or split them:
    
    # server "39.108.138.149", user: "root", roles: %w{app db web}, my_property: :my_value
    server "xxxx服务器的ip", user: "deploy", roles: %w{app db web}
    # server "example.com", user: "deploy", roles: %w{app web}, other_property: :other_value
    # server "db.example.com", user: "deploy", roles: %w{db}
    # role-based syntax
    # ==================
    
    # Defines a role with one or multiple servers. The primary server in each
    # group is considered to be the first unless any hosts have the primary
    # property set. Specify the username and a domain or IP for the server.
    # Don't use `:all`, it's a meta role.
    
    # role :app, %w{deploy@example.com}, my_property: :my_value
    # role :web, %w{user1@primary.com user2@additional.com}, other_property: :other_value
    # role :db,  %w{deploy@example.com}
    
    # Configuration
    # =============
    # You can set any configuration variable like in config/deploy.rb
    # These variables are then only loaded and set in this stage.
    # For available Capistrano configuration variables see the documentation page.
    # http://capistranorb.com/documentation/getting-started/configuration/
    # Feel free to add new variables to customise your setup.
    
    # Custom SSH Options
    # ==================
    # You may pass any option but keep in mind that net/ssh understands a
    # limited set of options, consult the Net::SSH documentation.
    # http://net-ssh.github.io/net-ssh/classes/Net/SSH.html#method-c-start
    #
    # Global options
    # --------------
    set :ssh_options, {
    keys: %w(/home/deploy/.ssh/id_rsa),
    port: xxx
    # forward_agent: false,
    # auth_methods: %w(password)
    }
    #
    # The server-based syntax can be used to override options:
    # ------------------------------------
    # server "example.com",
    #   user: "user_name",
    #     keys: %w(/home/user_name/.ssh/id_rsa),
    #     forward_agent: false,
    #     auth_methods: %w(publickey password)
    #     # password: "please use keys"
    #   }
    
    

最后

本地执行cap production deploy

欢迎指正

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