分享 Double Splat operator

rubyu2 · 2015年06月30日 · 2747 次阅读

分享两篇文章,介绍 Splat operator 和 Ruby2.0 引入的 Double Splat operator.

Splat goes Ruby Drat! - Ruby has a Double Splat

Splat 的用法:

  • 使用在方法参数中,转化 list 为 Array ```ruby def ahoy(*args) p args end

ahoy :a, 345, hello: :world # => [:a, 345, {:hello=>:world}]

- 将Array参数转化为list
```ruby
def ahoy(from, to)
  puts "#{to.capitalize}, #{from.capitalize} says ahoy!"
end

even_stephens = %w(steven stephen)
ahoy even_stephens # Array is interpreted as the first argument, and to_matey won’t be set. An ArgumentError is raised.

ahoy *even_stephens # Array is reversed to a list and all the arguments are filled out.
# => Stephen, Steven says ahoy!
  • splat 后面不能有 required 参数 ```ruby def hello(name, *args, options, &block) p name p args p options p block end

hello('denny', :a, :b, upcase: true) { 'block this!' }

name: ” denny”

args: [:a, :b]

options: {:upcase=>true}

=> #Proc:0x007fc1a10afd60


```ruby
# Works fine:
def hello(name = nil, *args)

# Throws SyntaxError:
def hello(*args, name = nil)

# Using several splats in a definition SyntaxErrors too:
def hello(a, *args, b, *brgs)
  • 可以在 yield 参数里 ```ruby ActiveSupport::Notifications.subscribe('render') do |name, start, finish, id, payload| puts payload end

ActiveSupport::Notifications.subscribe('render') do |*, payload| puts payload end

It's also easier than:

ActiveSupport::Notifications.subscribe('render') do |*args| payload = args.last puts payload end


- 赋值时的使用
```ruby
a, b = [:a, :b]
a # => :a
b # => :b

a, b = [:a, :b, :c] # :c is lost
a # => :a
b # => :b

a, *rest = [:a, :b, :c]
a # => :a
rest # => [:b, :c]

a, *= [:a, :b, :c]
a # => :a

a ,= [:a, :b, :c]
a # => :a
  • 如果不关心这个参数就不需要为这个参数命名 ```ruby class WhipperSnapper def initialize(snap_count, whip_size) @snap_count, @whip_size = snap_count, whip_size end end

class SupremeSnapper < WhipperSnapper def initialize(*) super @agility = 100_000 end end


### Double Splat的用法
- Obligatorily Optional(如何翻译?)
```ruby
def hello(**options)
  p options
end

hello
# options: {}

hello name: 'Kasper'
# options: { :name => 'Kasper' }

类似于 optional arguments

def hello(options = {})
end
  • Hash ```ruby def hello(name = nil, **options) p name p options end

hello 'Kasper'

name: 'Kasper'

options: {}

hello upcase: true

name: nil

options: { :upcase => true }

`**`之前的参数必须是可选的!
```ruby
def hello(name, **options)
  p name
  p options
end

hello upcase: true
# name: { :upcase => true }
# options: {}
  • Off Key Splat 使用了 double splats 之后可以传入或多或少的 keys ```ruby def hello(name:) p name end

hello # raises "ArgumentError: missing keyword: name" as expected

hello name: 'Kasper', play_style: :laces_out

raises "ArgumentError: unknown keyword: play_style"


```ruby
def hello(name:, **options)
  p name
  p options
end

hello name: 'Kasper', play_style: :laces_out
# name: 'Kasper'
# options: { :play_style => :laces_out }

hello play_style: :laces_out
# ArgumentError: missing keyword: name

# 加入默认值后

def hello(name: nil, **options)
  p name
  p options
end

hello play_style: :laces_out
# nil
# {:play_style=>:laces_out}
  • Exploit a Splat, Expand a Hash 可以展开一个 hash
options = { a: 'b' }
{ c: 'd', **options } # => { :c => "d", :a => "b" }

*可以展开一个数组,两个用法还是挺接近的。

a=[1,3]
# => [1, 3]
[2, *a]
# => [2, 1, 3]
  • Yield to Splat 之前可以这么写 ```ruby def hello yield name: 'Kasper' end

hello { |options| p options[:name] }

Outputs "Kasper"


可以简写
```ruby
hello { |name:| p name }
# Outputs "Kasper"
def hello
  yield name: 'Kasper', play_style: :laces_out
end

hello { |name:, **| p name }
# Outputs "Kasper"
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