Rails Rails & Ruby Best Practice

qinfanpeng · 发布于 2016年1月26日 · 最后由 xiaoping_rubyist 回复于 2017年1月12日 · 1641 次阅读
3790

其中部分示例稍老,但其思想仍然适用

Setup

gem install rails_best_practices

rails_best_practices .

default_scope is Evil

class Post
  default_scope where(published: true).order("created_at desc")
end

you can't override default scope

Post.order("updated_at desc").limit(10) # =>
# Post Load (17.3ms)  SELECT `posts`.* FROM `posts` WHERE `posts`.`published` = 1 ORDER BY created_at desc, updated_at desc LIMIT 10

Post.unscoped.order("updated_at desc").limit(10) # =>
# Post Load (1.9ms)  SELECT `posts`.* FROM `posts` ORDER BY updated_at desc LIMIT 10

default_scope will affect your model initialization

Post.new # =>
<Post id: nil, published: true, title: nil, created_at: nil, updated_at: nil, user_id: nil>

Not Rescue Exception

loop do
  begin
    sleep 1
    eval "djsakru3924r9eiuorwju3498 += 5u84fior8u8t4ruyf8ihiure"
  rescue Exception => e
    puts "I refuse to fail or be stopped!"
  end
end

Ruby Exception Class Hierarchy

Exception
  NoMemoryError
  ScriptError
    LoadError
    NotImplementedError
    SyntaxError
  SignalException
    Interrupt
      Timeout::Error    # < ruby 1.9.2
  StandardError         # caught by rescue (default if no type was specified)
    ArgumentError
    IOError
      EOFError
    IndexError
    LocalJumpError
    NameError
      NoMethodError
    RangeError
      FloatDomainError
    RegexpError
    RuntimeError
      Timeout::Error    # >= ruby 1.9.2
    SecurityError
    SocketError
    SystemCallError
    SystemStackError
    ThreadError
    TypeError
    ZeroDivisionError
  SystemExit
  fatal

Rescue StandardError, Not Exception

begin
  # iceberg!
rescue => e
  # lifeboats
end

# which is equivalent to:
begin
  # iceberg!
rescue StandardError => e
  # lifeboats
end

Rescue Exception for Logging/Reporting

begin
  # iceberg?
rescue Exception => e
  # do some logging
  raise e  # not enough lifeboats ;)
end

Needless Deep Nesting

# config/routes.rb
resources :auctions do
  resources :bids do
    resources :comments 
  end
end
edit_auction_bid_comment_path(@auction, @bid, @comment)
  • As we already have the resource_id parameter in the URLs for #show, #edit, #update and #destroy
  • So only need to nest #index, #new and #create under the resource

Rewrite Deep Nesting

resources :auctions do
  resources :bids, only: [:index, :new, :create]
end

resources :bids, only: [:show, :edit, :update, :destroy]

Or

resources :auctions, shallow: true do 
  resources :bids do
    resources :comments 
  end
end

Or

resources :auctions do 
   resources :bids
end

resources :bids do 
  resources :comments
end

resources :comments

Shallow Routes

bid_comments GET    /bids/:bid_id/comments(.:format)
             POST   /bids/:bid_id/comments(.:format)
new_bid_comment GET /bids/:bid_id/comments/new(.:format)
   edit_comment GET /comments/:id/edit(.:format)
        comment GET /comments/:id(.:format)
             PATCH  /comments/:id(.:format)
             PUT    /comments/:id(.:format)
             DELETE /comments/:id(.:format)
auction_bids GET    /auctions/:auction_id/bids(.:format)
             POST   /auctions/:auction_id/bids(.:format)
new_auction_bid GET /auctions/:auction_id/bids/new(.:format)
       edit_bid GET /bids/:id/edit(.:format)
            bid GET /bids/:id(.:format)
             PATCH  /bids/:id(.:format)
             PUT    /bids/:id(.:format)
             DELETE /bids/:id(.:format)
    auctions GET    /auctions(.:format)
             POST   /auctions(.:format)
    new_auction GET /auctions/new(.:format)
   edit_auction GET /auctions/:id/edit(.:format)
        auction GET /auctions/:id(.:format)
     ...

Replace Instance Variable With Local Variable

Downside of using instance variables in partials

class PostsController < ApplicationController
  def show
    @item = ...
  end
end
# sidebar partial use @item directly
<%= render partial: "sidebar" %>

The downside of using instance variables in partials is that you create a dependency in the partial to something outside the partial's scope (coupling). This makes the partial harder to reuse, and can force changes in several parts of the application when you want to make a change in one part.

Partials that use instance variables in partial:

  1. Discourage reuse, as they can only easily be reused in actions that set up instance variables with the same name and data
  2. Shotgun Surgy,Must change when the instance variable in any controller that uses the partial changes either the instance variable name or its type or data structure, and vice versa.

Replace Instance Variable With Local Variable

###Instead, pass locals to the partials

<%= render 'reusable_partial', item: @item %>

the partial only references item and not @item.

<%= render 'reusable_partial', :item => @other_object.item %>

Also, this can be reused in contexts where there is no @item:

<%= render 'reusable_partial', :item => @duck %>

Now, because the partial only references item and not @item, the action that renders the view that renders the reusable_partial is free to change without affecting the reusable_partial and the other actions/views that render it:

If my @duck changes in the future and no longer quacks like reusable_partial expects it to (the object's interface changes), I can also use an adapter to pass in the kind of item that reusable_partial expects:

@duck changes in the future, I can also use an adapter.

<%= render 'reusable_partial', :item => itemlike_duck(@duck) %>

Use Scope Access

Check the permission by comparing the owner of object with current_user

class PostsController < ApplicationController
  def edit
    @post = Post.find(params[:id])
    if @post.user != current_user
      flash[:warning] = 'Access denied'
      redirect_to posts_url
    end
  end
end

Just use scope access to make permission check simpler.

class PostsController < ApplicationController
  def edit
    # raise RecordNotFound exception (404 error) if not found
    @post = current_user.posts.find(params[:id])
  end
end

The Law of Demeter

Code Smell

class Invoice < ActiveRecord::Base
  belongs_to :user
end

<%= @invoice.user.name %>
<%= @invoice.user.address %>
<%= @invoice.user.cellphone %>

Refactor

class Invoice < ActiveRecord::Base
  belongs_to :user
  delegate :name, :address, :cellphone, :to => :user, :prefix => true
end

<%= @invoice.user_name %>
<%= @invoice.user_address %>
<%= @invoice.user_cellphone %>

Keep Finders on Their Own Model

Bad Smell

class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
  has_many :comments

  def find_valid_comments
    self.comment.find(:all, :conditions => {:is_spam => false},
                            :limit => 10)
  end
end

class Comment < ActiveRecord::Base
  belongs_to :post
end

class CommentsController < ApplicationController
  def index
    @comments = @post.find_valid_comments
  end
end
class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
  has_many :comments
end

class Comment < ActiveRecord::Base
  belongs_to :post

  scope :only_valid, -> { is_spam: false }
  scope :limit, lambda { |size| { :limit => size } }
end

class CommentsController < ApplicationController
  def index
    @comments = @post.comments.only_valid.limit(10)
  end
end

Use query attribute

Code Smell

<% if @user.login.blank? %>
  <%= link_to 'login', new_session_path %>
<% end %>

<% if @user.login.present? %>
  <%= @user.login %>
<% end %>

Refactor

<% unless @user.login? %>
  <%= link_to 'login', new_session_path %>
<% end %>

<% if @user.login? %>
  <%= @user.login %>
<% end %>

Simplify Render in Views

Before

<%= render :partial => 'sidebar' %>
<%= render :partial => 'shared/sidebar', :locals => { :parent => post } %>

After

<%= render 'sidebar' %>
<%= render 'shared/sidebar', :parent => post %>
if account && account.owner && account.owner.address
...
end

Isn't identical to

if account.try(:owner).try(:address)
...
end

Isn't identical to

if account&.owner&.address
...
end

There're similar when something is nil

account = Account.new(owner: nil) # account without an owner

account.owner.address
# => NoMethodError: undefined method `address' for nil:NilClass

account && account.owner && account.owner.address
# => nil

account.try(:owner).try(:address)
# => nil

account&.owner&.address
# => nil

&. operator only skips nil but recognizes false!

account = Account.new(owner: false)

account.owner.address
# => NoMethodError: undefined method `address' for false:FalseClass `

account && account.owner && account.owner.address
# => false

account.try(:owner).try(:address)
# => nil

account&.owner&.address
# => undefined method `address' for false:FalseClass`

When use try, whatch out misspelling!

account = Account.new(owner: Object.new)

account.owner.address
# => NoMethodError: undefined method `address' for #<Object:0x00559996b5bde8>

account && account.owner && account.owner.address
# => NoMethodError: undefined method `address' for #<Object:0x00559996b5bde8>`

account.try(:owner).try(:address)
# => nil

account&.owner&.address
# => NoMethodError: undefined method `address' for #<Object:0x00559996b5bde8>`

There's a stricter version of try - try! for you:

account.try!(:owner).try!(:address)
# => NoMethodError: undefined method `address' for #<Object:0x00559996b5bde8>`

References

  1. http://thepugautomatic.com/2013/05/locals/
  2. http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2503838/rails-should-partials-be-aware-of-instance-variables
  3. http://nithinbekal.com/posts/rails-shallow-nesting/
共收到 3 条回复
20859

感觉这个&.不是特别好用啊,只有在前个方法返回nil的场景下才可以用。

3790

它和 try 类似,大部分情况都希望它们帮我们 handle 中间值为 nil 的情况,对于中间为 false 的,它们处理得就比较不怎么合心意了。

96

写的真好,新手都该多学学这些最佳实践!

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